Suggested Reading

​​​Berlin, Ira     

Many Thousands Gone: the First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge : Harvard University, 1998.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey     

Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge : Harvard University, 1997.

Brooks, James F., ed.     

Confounding the Color Line: the Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln : University of Nebraska, 2002.

Coleman, Arica L.

That the Blood Stay Pure: African Americans, Native Americans, and the Predicament of Race and Identity in Virginia. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 2013.

Daut, Marlene

When France Extorted Haiti - the Greatest Heist in History.

Dennis, Yvonne Wakim

Hirschfelder, Arlene

Flynn, Shannon Rothenberger

Native American Almanac: more than 50,000 years of the cultures and histories of indigenous peoples. Canton, MI : Visible Ink, 2016

Forbes, Jack D.     

Africans and Native Americans: the Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. 2nd ed. Urbana : University of Illinois, 1993.

Halliburton, R.     

Red over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians. Westport, CT : Greenwood, 1977.

Huyghe, Patrick.

Columbus Was Last: From 200,000 B.C. to 1492, a Heretical History of Who Was First. New York : Hyperion, 1992.

Katz, William Loren

Black Indians: a Hidden Heritage. New York : Atheneum, 1986, 2012

Katz, William Loren

Eyewitness: a Living Documentary of the African American Contribution to American History. New York : Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Lindsey, Donal F.

Indians at Hampton Institute, 1877-1923. Urbana : University of Illinois, 1995.

Littlefield, Daniel F.

Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation. Westport, CT : Greenwood, 1977.

Miles, Tiya.

Crossing Waters, Crossing Worlds: The African Diaspora in Indian Country. Durham, NC : Duke University Press, 2006.

Miles, Tiya.

Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. Berkeley : University of California Press, 2006.

Van Sertima, Ivan

They Came Before Columbus: the African Presence in Ancient America. New York : Random House, 1976.

Wright, James Leitch

The Only Land They Knew: the Tragic Story of the American Indians in the Old South. New York : Free Press, 1981.