Suggested Reading

​​​Berlin, Ira     

Many Thousands Gone: the First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge : Harvard University, 1998.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey     

Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge : Harvard University, 1997.

Brooks, James F., ed.     

Confounding the Color Line: the Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln : University of Nebraska, 2002.

Coleman, Arica L.

That the Blood Stay Pure: African Americans, Native Americans, and the Predicament of Race and Identity in Virginia. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 2013.

Daut, Marlene

When France Extorted Haiti - the Greatest Heist in History.

Dennis, Yvonne Wakim

Hirschfelder, Arlene

Flynn, Shannon Rothenberger

Native American Almanac: more than 50,000 years of the cultures and histories of indigenous peoples. Canton, MI : Visible Ink, 2016

Forbes, Jack D.     

Africans and Native Americans: the Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. 2nd ed. Urbana : University of Illinois, 1993.

Halliburton, R.     

Red over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians. Westport, CT : Greenwood, 1977.

Huyghe, Patrick.

Columbus Was Last: From 200,000 B.C. to 1492, a Heretical History of Who Was First. New York : Hyperion, 1992.

Katz, William Loren

Black Indians: a Hidden Heritage. New York : Atheneum, 1986, 2012

Katz, William Loren

Eyewitness: a Living Documentary of the African American Contribution to American History. New York : Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Lindsey, Donal F.

Indians at Hampton Institute, 1877-1923. Urbana : University of Illinois, 1995.

Littlefield, Daniel F.

Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation. Westport, CT : Greenwood, 1977.

Miles, Tiya.

Crossing Waters, Crossing Worlds: The African Diaspora in Indian Country. Durham, NC : Duke University Press, 2006.

Miles, Tiya.

Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. Berkeley : University of California Press, 2006.

Van Sertima, Ivan

They Came Before Columbus: the African Presence in Ancient America. New York : Random House, 1976.

Wright, James Leitch

The Only Land They Knew: the Tragic Story of the American Indians in the Old South. New York : Free Press, 1981.


We are Red-Black people. We are people of both Native American and African ancestry, and give ourselves permission to honor ALL our Ancestors. We are who WE say we are, not what others call us.

Instead of whispering, "My grandmother was an Indian," do the research. Look up the records. Read a book. Go to a powwow. Learn about and participate in the culture. And stand tall.

You don't need a card

to be who you already are.


Phone: 804-307-8807, 757-826-6437

Text: 804-307-8807

Email: weyanoke @


The Weyanoke Association is an

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All donations are tax exempt.